Adjectives that are really Participles , verb forms with -ing and -ed endings, can be troublesome for some students. It is one thing to be a frightened child; it is an altogether different matter to be a frightening child. Do you want to go up to your professor after class and say that you are confused or that you are confusing ? Generally, the -ed ending means that the noun so described ("you") has a passive relationship with something something (the subject matter, the presentation) has bewildered you and you are confus ed . The -ing ending means that the noun described has a more active role you are not making any sense so you are confus ing (to others, including your professor).
Sometimes a dictionary would give a great number of example sentences for a word that doesn’t need a lot of examples. For example, you don’t need more than 4 examples to learn to use phrases like sore throat or angst-filled lyrics . These relatively useless examples would add to the total number of example sentences in my test, making the dictionary seem better than it really is. To avoid this effect, for each word, I set a limit (between 4 and 7) on the number of example sentences that I would count. If a dictionary had more examples than the limit, I did not count the extra examples.