It may, however, be argued that if a comprehensive, long term, view is taken of leadership competence - which would include personal attributes, technical/ professional competencies, values and attitudes, and conduct - toxic leaders are incompetent because they are not competent across all domains of a well rounded leader. The premise of this article is that the more comprehensive view of leadership competence should be taken. Thus toxic leadership, regardless of their level of technical/ professional competence, implies incompetence. »
Submitted as a chapter for “Designing Hospitals of the Future” edited by G. D. Kunders, Planning Hospitals of the Future is a guide for future healthcare planners and architects. Over the last 60 years, there have been recurring trends in thinking about the planning and design of hospital facilities, which seem to go through cycles. Specialty hospitals, new standards for patient rooms, ideas for efficient nursing unit planning, and design for healing environments; all have been the subject of architectural thinking in the past and then interest has subsided; but all will certainly be back again.