In the following table of consonant phonemes, /θ/ and /ʎ/ are marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that they are preserved only in some dialects. In most dialects they have been merged, respectively, with /s/ and /ʝ/ , in the mergers called, respectively, seseo and yeísmo . The phoneme /ʃ/ is in parentheses () to indicate that it appears only in loanwords . Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes /b/ , /d/ , /ʝ/ , and /ɡ/ appears to the right of a pair of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the voiceless phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the voiced ones alternate allophonically (. without phonemic contrast) between plosive and approximant pronunciations.