Evolution and antibiotic resistance essay

Naturally occurring antibiotic resistance is common. [74] Genes for resistance to antibiotics, like antibiotics themselves, are ancient. [75] [76] The genes that confer resistance are known as the environmental resistome . [74] These genes may be transferred from non-disease-causing bacteria to those that do cause disease, leading to clinically significant antibiotic resistance. [74] In 1952 it was shown that penicillin-resistant bacteria existed before penicillin treatment; [77] and also preexistent bacterial resistance to streptomycin . [78] In 1962, the presence of penicillinase was detected in dormant endospores of Bacillus licheniformis , revived from dried soil on the roots of plants, preserved since 1689 in the British Museum . [79] [80] [81] Six strains of Clostridium , found in the bowels of William Braine and John Hartnell (members of the Franklin Expedition ) showed resistance to cefoxitin and clindamycin . [82] Penicillinase may have emerged as a defense mechanism for bacteria in their habitats , such as the case of penicillinase-rich Staphylococcus aureus , living with penicillin-producing Trichophyton ; however, this may be circumstantial. [81] Search for a penicillinase ancestor has focused on the class of proteins that must be a priori capable of specific combination with penicillin . [83] The resistance to cefoxitin and clindamycin in turn was attributed to Braine's and Hartnell's contact with microorganisms that naturally produce them or random mutation in the chromosomes of Clostridium strains. [82] There is evidence that heavy metals and other pollutants may select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, generating a constant source of them in small numbers. [84]

Maura Meade-Callahan, . , is a professor of biology at Allegheny College in Meadville, PA. There she teaches biology, microbiology, and antimicrobial agent resistance in bacteria. She earned her . in plant pathology at North Carolina State University. She is actively involved in a graduate research ethics project of the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics and in various aspects of undergraduate microbiology education through the American Society for Microbiology. She serves as a reviewer for several journals, textbooks, and web sites.

Evolution and antibiotic resistance essay

evolution and antibiotic resistance essay

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evolution and antibiotic resistance essayevolution and antibiotic resistance essayevolution and antibiotic resistance essayevolution and antibiotic resistance essay