Cause of the reformation essay

"In the very beginning, when this great universe lay in the mind of God, like unborn forests in the acorn cup; long before the echoes awoke the solitudes; before the mountains were brought forth; and long before the light flashed through the sky, God loved His chosen creatures. Before there was any created being --- when the ether was not fanned by an angel's wing, when space itself had not an existence, where there was nothing save God alone --- even then, in that loneliness of Deity, and in that deep quiet and profundity, His heart moved with love for His chosen. Their names were written on His heart, and then were they dear to His soul. Jesus loved His people before the foundation of the world --- even from eternity! and when He called me by His grace, He said to me, 'I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee’”

He meets his Brazilian born wife Anita who becomes his companion-in-arms and heroine of the Risorgimento . She was just as brave as Garibaldi often fighting side by side with her hero husband. She died during the retreat from Rome in '49. 1836-40 As soldier, corsair, and naval captain, he fights for the break-away province of Rio Grande, in its attempt to free itself from the Brazilian Empire. 1841 He tries his hand at various jobs-including cattle herdsman, trader, and schoolmaster at Montevideo. 1842 Put in command of the small Orientale (Uruguayan) fleet against Manuel de Rosas, the dictator of Argentina. 1843 Also becomes commander of the newly formed Italian Legion at Montevideo. 1846 Wins the "battle" of St. Antonio, after which a sword of honor is subscribed for him in Italy. Lord John Russell is appointed Prime Minister in Great Britain. 1847 Briefly in command of the defense of Montevideo. Offers his services to Pope Pius IX but is refused. 1848 (April) Leads eighty of his legionaries back to Italy. (July) Vainly offers to fight for the king of Piedmont. (August) In command  of a volunteer unit at Milan against the Austrians, and survives two brisk engagements at Luino and Morrazzone. 1849 (February) As an elected deputy in the Roman Assembly (after the flight of Pius IX), he proposes the creation of a Roman Republic. (April) As a general of brigade, he beats off an attack by the French at the St. Pancrazio gate of Rome. (May) Defeats a Neapolitan army at Velletri. (June) Takes a principal part in defending Rome against further French attacks. (July) Leads a few thousand men from Rome through central Italy to escape from French and Austrian armies. (August) After disbanding his men in San Marino, he is chased at sea and on land by the Austrians; his first wife, Anita, dies. (September) As soon as he arrives back in Piedmontese territory, he is arrested and deported as an undesirable.

After Luther refused to recant at the Diet of Worms in 1521, ordinary people in many German towns called for "preaching the pure Gospel ." They enjoyed support from committed members of the local elites — often younger men with humanist educations. Through the 1520s, many German cities edged cautiously toward open rejection of Rome , and by 1530, a substantial majority had joined the Lutheran or Zwinglian "Reformation in the cities." It is striking how radically new converts during these years rejected practices such as the veneration of images, in which they had often participated right up to the introduction of evangelical ideas. Adopting the Reformation brought about sharp changes in daily ritual that everyone could see.

Cause of the reformation essay

cause of the reformation essay


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